The influence of social factors on students’ performance in learning English as a second language in Abia State of Nigeria


  • Ngozi Ijeoma Ugo-Ochulo School of General Studies, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria



Environment., L2 English, Performance, Students, Social factors


Social factors may have an influence on students’ performance in learning English as a second language. This study set out to examine the extent to which the levels of education of parents influence the students’ performance in English, the influence of rural or urban location, and the extent to which the occupation of parents influences the students’ learning of English as an L2. The theory employed for the research is Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory of cognitive development. A total of six secondary schools, selected from the three Senatorial Districts in Abia State were used for the study. Data were elicited from 268 respondents, using the biographical data the students filled and their examination scores for the first and the second terms, 2023. The data were analysed quantitatively. The results indicate that respondents whose parents were School Certificate holders and below failed English more than respondents whose parents were university/HND holders or OND/NCE holders. However, respondents whose parents were OND/NCE holders performed slightly better than respondents whose parents were degree holders. Also, the result showed that respondents who live in urban or semi-urban areas performed better than those who live in rural areas and finally, participants whose parents were civil servants or graduates who owned businesses
performed better than respondents whose parents were not so educated and were in business. The study recommends an improvement of facilities in schools located in the rural settings, among others. This will enhance the academic performance of the students in English. 


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How to Cite

Ugo-Ochulo, N. I. (2024). The influence of social factors on students’ performance in learning English as a second language in Abia State of Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Languages Project, 5.